Biologic medicines, or protein-based medicines such as insulin, are designed to interact with specific targets in the patient’s body. A more targeted mechanism of action should lead to a greater chance of the medicine having the desired effect against the disease and should result in fewer side effects than traditional medicines.
A medicine is commonly defined as a drug or preparation that can treat or prevent disease. Medicines must be delivered into the body, where they are then distributed to the organs that need them before being broken down and excreted.
Vaccines are biological preparations developed from modified versions of the micro-organisms that cause a disease. Vaccines improve or convey immunity to particular diseases, usually in an effort to prevent or cure disease.
Gene therapy is a way of restoring the function in cells where genes are missing or not working properly. It is a highly experimental technique, but has shown promise in clinical trials for some diseases.
Once a target receptor molecule or an enzyme has been identified, scientists begin to look for potential compounds that will interact with the target to correct disease-related activity.These molecules go through a long and careful process to be developed into medicines.
Once medicines have been administered and carried to the target by the bloodstream, their active ingredients interact with cells and in different ways, either by stimulating or inhibiting cellular activity.