There are vaccines to prevent infectious diseases caused by bacteria (such as pertussis, pneumococcal), viruses (such as measles, mumps, rubella, influenza), and parasites (such as Malaria). Vaccines are also increasingly being developed to treat and not only to prevent. Preventive vaccines fall under four main types: Live-attenuated vaccines use a weakened (“attenuated”) form of the…Read more
Patient advocates can be involved in early clinical development through partnerships and working relationships with regulatory authorities, ethics committees, investigators, and industry. They can provide input and play an important role in several aspects.
Early clinical trials (Phase I and II) must establish above all that an investigational medicinal product is safe for humans, as well as to show that the medicine is effective against the intended disease or condition.
In Phase II trials, the investigational medicinal product is tested for efficacy (and safety). The studies conducted are typically therapeutic exploratory studies which try to discover whether the medicine treats the intended disease or condition.
Phase I trials are usually the first studies of a medicine conducted in humans – known as ‘first-in-human’ (also known as first-in-man) trials. They are typically human pharmacology studiest, with the medicine that has been thoroughly and extensively tested in laboratory and animal studies before.
The four phases of clinical development are explained in terms of objectives and features.