Biomarkers are indicators used in medical research to measure biological processes, disease processes, and responses to treatment. The use of biomarkers can improve the process of medicines development and help tailor treatments to individuals.
The term ‘personalised medicine’ includes both stratification and personalisation, which are often incorrectly used as synonyms. However, the two are different, as explained further below.
Stratified and personalised medicine involves tailoring treatments towards a specific group of patients or to individuals.
Personalised medicine is a developing area that faces procedural and ethical challenges in research and treatment.
There are several new research areas driving personalised medicine forward, such as molecular genetics, epigenetics, pharmacogenetics, and the development of biomarkers and biomedicines.