During lead generation, many molecules are tested for target interaction. These may then need to be altered, or optimised, in order to improve their effect on the target.
During the target selection step of the medicines development process, scientists choose which abnormal process to focus on and correct in order to treat an illness.
During the pre-discovery step of the medicines development process, unmet needs are determined and investment decisions are made.
Once a target receptor molecule or an enzyme has been identified, scientists begin to look for potential compounds that will interact with the target to correct disease-related activity.These molecules go through a long and careful process to be developed into medicines.
There are several new research areas driving personalised medicine forward, such as molecular genetics, epigenetics, pharmacogenetics, and the development of biomarkers and biomedicines.
Four concepts are important in determining the use of medicine in the treatment of diseases: Symptoms, diagnosis, mechanisms, and targets.